Working papers

Geographical constraints in track choices: a French study using high school openings, Garrouste, M., Zaiem M., Discussion paper LEM, no 2019-21, 2019
Abstract
In this paper we study the effect of opening a new high school on pupils’ schooling at the end of lower secondary education. We use high school openings to highlight the constraint local school supply exerts on individual schooling decisions. Our working sample covers all pupils enrolled in 9th grade between the school year 2007-2008 and the school year 2012-2013 in France. Our estimation strategy (a generalized difference in differences) takes advantage of the variation in time and space of the openings of high schools to estimate the causal effect of an increase in school supply on the allocation of pupils at the end of 9th grade. We show that opening a new high school significantly increases the probability for pupils from neighboring middle schools to continue in higher secondary education. The effect is only due to new high schools which propose a vocational track. Furthermore, the effect is mainly driven by low achieving students.
Good teaching and good grades. Can you buy pedagogy?, Garrouste, M., Le Saout R., Discussion paper LEM, no 2019-18, 2019
Abstract
This paper assesses students objectivity in their evaluations of teaching, by analyzing the relationship between their grades and evaluations, and the dynamics of evaluations over time. We exploit an original data set from almost 100 courses during 7 academic years in a French higher education institution. We use generalized additive model, teacher fixed effects and instrumental variables estimations to rule out any simultaneity or endogeneity bias. We find that students take their exam grade into account when they evaluate teaching. A better grade is associated with a better evaluation of teacher’s pedagogy, although the size of the effect is small. We also find that students give lower evaluations after the exam and higher evaluations after getting their grades.
More harm than good? Sorting effects in a compensatory education program, Davezies, L., Garrouste, M., CREST Working Papers, no 2014-42, 2014
Abstract
In this paper, we provide evidence that compensatory education policies that target schools in socially deprived areas are likely to create a negative signal resulting in a sorting effect. We investigate this effect by analyzing the French " Réseaux ambition réussite " (RAR) program, which targeted low-achieving and socially disadvantaged junior high schools between 2006 and 2011. We use an original geocoded individual data set and a regression discontinuity identification strategy to assess the causal effect of the RAR program on families’ school choice. We find that individuals do adjust to school-based compensatory education policies, since they tend to avoid schools that enter the RAR program by enrolling in the private sector. We also find that the RAR program increases social segregation across schools, since the most socially advantaged individuals tend to avoid schools that enter the RAR program more than other pupils, by enrolling in the private sector instead.
« Le temps comme ressource : Étude de l’emploi du temps des Français en situation de pauvreté », Bouhia, R., Garrouste, M., Leduc, A., Ricroch, L., and de Saint Pol, T., CREST Working Papers, INSEE, no 2009-20, 2009
Abstract
In this paper, we study the schedule of poor people in France. The analysis uses data from time-use survey conducted by the French Institute for Statistics (INSEE) in 1999. It gives information on activities practiced by the individuals every ten minutes during one day.Using the Ordinary Least Squares method we show that poverty has different effects on time spent doing activities according to sex and age. We emphasize the existence of selection effect in addition to time effect using a Generalized Probit model, which gives moreover the advantage of taking censured data into account. We then focus on days organization of the poor. We use Optimal Matching Analysis to account for the sequential nature of the data set. This method provides ten types of schedule for the poor. We conclude that poor people use their time in order to offset their monetary disadvantage but that they face external constraints in the way they can organize their days.