Publications

« Does the réseaux ambition réussite program improve pupils' academic achievement? A regression discontinuity analysis », Caille, J.-P., Davezies, L., and Garrouste, M., Revue économique, 2016/3 (Vol. 67), pp. 639-666
Abstract
“Réseaux ambition réussite” (RAR), or “ambition success networks,” are a compensatory education policy that took place in France between 2006 and 2011. To be eligible, a collège (equivalent to junior high school) had to enroll at least 67% of pupils from a disadvantaged background, and at least 10% of pupils having repeated twice or more when entering junior high school. About 3% of junior high school pupils were enrolled in a rar. Evaluating the impact of such a policy is complicated by two types of bias. First, the selection of schools into the program makes that the pupils enrolled in a rar school would have lower academic achievement than the other pupils on average, even in the absence of the program. Second, the school is not the good level of analysis, since pupils may select themselves into the program. To analyze the causal effect of the program on individual academic achievement at the end of junior high school, we use a regression discontinuity method and an original exhaustive data set. Overall, we do not find any significant effect of enrollment in a RAR on individual educational outcomes at the end of junior high school. The absence of average effect may be due to differentiated effects according to pupils’ characteristics.
« Être sans diplôme aujourd’hui en France : quelles caractéristiques, quel parcours et quel destin ? », Bouhia, R., Garrouste, M., Lebrère, A., Ricroch, L., and de Saint Pol, T., Économie et Statistique, n° 443, 2011, pp. 29-50

Working papers

More harm than good? Sorting effects in a compensatory education program, Davezies, L., Garrouste, M., CREST Working Papers, no 2014-42, 2014
Abstract
In this paper, we provide evidence that compensatory education policies that target schools in socially deprived areas are likely to create a negative signal resulting in a sorting effect. We investigate this effect by analyzing the French " Réseaux ambition réussite " (RAR) program, which targeted low-achieving and socially disadvantaged junior high schools between 2006 and 2011. We use an original geocoded individual data set and a regression discontinuity identification strategy to assess the causal effect of the RAR program on families’ school choice. We find that individuals do adjust to school-based compensatory education policies, since they tend to avoid schools that enter the RAR program by enrolling in the private sector. We also find that the RAR program increases social segregation across schools, since the most socially advantaged individuals tend to avoid schools that enter the RAR program more than other pupils, by enrolling in the private sector instead.
« Le temps comme ressource : Étude de l’emploi du temps des Français en situation de pauvreté », Bouhia, R., Garrouste, M., Leduc, A., Ricroch, L., and de Saint Pol, T., CREST Working Papers, INSEE, no 2009-20, 2009
Abstract
In this paper, we study the schedule of poor people in France. The analysis uses data from time-use survey conducted by the French Institute for Statistics (INSEE) in 1999. It gives information on activities practiced by the individuals every ten minutes during one day.Using the Ordinary Least Squares method we show that poverty has different effects on time spent doing activities according to sex and age. We emphasize the existence of selection effect in addition to time effect using a Generalized Probit model, which gives moreover the advantage of taking censured data into account. We then focus on days organization of the poor. We use Optimal Matching Analysis to account for the sequential nature of the data set. This method provides ten types of schedule for the poor. We conclude that poor people use their time in order to offset their monetary disadvantage but that they face external constraints in the way they can organize their days.

Work in progress

More harm than good? Sorting effects in a compensatory education program, with Laurent Davezies (CREST)
(revised and resubmitted to Journal of Human Resources)
Abstract
We provide evidence that school-based compensatory education policies create sorting effects, by analyzing a French program, which targeted low-achieving and socially disadvantaged junior high schools. We use geocoded original data, and a regression discontinuity framework to show that the program decreases the individual probability to attend a treated school, and symmetrically increases the probability to attend a private school. The effects are driven by pupils from high socio-economic backgrounds, resulting in an increase in social segregation across schools.
Geographical constraints in track choices: a French study using high school openings, with Meryam Zaiem (DARES, CREST)
(in progress)
Abstract
In this paper we study the effect of a change in local school supply on pupils' track choice at the end of lower secondary education. We use high school openings to highlight the constraint local school supply exerts on individual schooling decisions. Our data set covers all pupils enrolled in 9th grade between the school year 2002-2003 and the school year 2011-2012 in mainland France. For those pupils we observe what track they follow in 10th grade. We are able to precisely locate both middle schools and high schools and identify new high schools. Our estimation strategy (generalized difference in differences) takes advantage of the variation in time and space of the openings of high schools to estimate the causal effect of an increase in school supply on the allocation of pupils at the end of 9th grade. We show that, when a new high school appears in the neighbourhood of a middle school, the proportion of pupils who continue in high school increases significantly. This increase is due to a larger proportion of pupils going to the vocational track.
Good teaching and good grades. Can you buy pedagogy?, with Ronan Le Saout (ENSAI, CREST)
(in progress)
Abstract
Student evaluation of teaching is increasingly used in higher education institutions. In this paper, we exploit an original data set that contains the results and evaluations for almost 100 courses during 7 school years in a French "grande école". We analyze the relationship between grades and student evaluations using teacher fixed effects and instrumental variables methods in order to rule out any simultaneity and endogeneity bias. We also exploit variation in the date when students evaluate teaching to analyze the dynamics of evaluations. We find that students take their exam grade into account when they evaluate teaching and that a better grade is associated with a better evaluation of teacher’s pedagogy. However the size of the effect is small. We also find that students use contemporaneous information when evaluating teaching.
Urban policies and compensatory education: effects on educational achievement, with Fanny Alivon, and Rachel Guillain (LEDi)
(in progress)
Abstract
In this paper, we study the effect on academic achievement of the overlap between urban and education placed-based policies in France. The identification challenge comes from the fact that the three nested units of analysis (namely the neighborhood, the school, and the individual) create two potential bias due to i) location choices, ii) and school choices. To disentangle the effects of urban and education placed-based policies, we propose to use regression discontinuities at the boundaries of treated zones. We use very precise geocoded data at the three levels of analysis to investigate the net effect of each type of programs, as well as potential interaction effects. Preliminary results suggest that the net effect on academic achievement of placed-based policies is negative, but that interaction effects, if any, are positive.
Residential mobility and school choice, with Denis Fougère (CNRS, CREST, Liepp/Sciences Po, DEPP)
The effect of distance to school on educational achievement, The impact of the Swedish reform, with Nikolay Angelov (IFAU, Swedish National Audit Office)